Area:334,8 sq. km
Population:2.9 million people (73% Uzbek, 18% Russian, 5% Tatars and 4% other nationalities)
Telephone code:+998 71

The city is more than 2200 years old. Many remarkable events, both in peace and war, had taken place during the history of Tashkent, including many periods of rise and decline.

Tashkent is the capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan.  It is located in the north-eastern part of the country, in the valley of Chirchik river.  Being a political and economic center of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent has on its territory the residence of the President, the Legislative Chamber of Оliy Majlis, the Senate of Oliy Majlis, the Cabinet of Ministers, embassies of foreign states, public organizations and central administrative boards of all ministries and government bodies.

Scientists consider the age of Tashkent as twenty five centuries from the first few settlements to the modern metropolis.  Tashkent (in Uzbek “Stone city”) carefully keeps evidences of the past and memories of historical events of the ancient land of Uzbekistan.

The advantageous geographical position and favorable climate made Tashkent one of the main points for a trade on the Great Silk Road in ancient times.

Modern Tashkent – being one of the largest cities in the Central Asia – is rich with beautiful Islamic architectural buildings, mosques, madrasas, museums and libraries which are carefully preserved for future generations.

The appearance of the city has considerably changed over the past few years.   Nowadays visitors of Tashkent are delighted with its broad highways, big and shady trees, wide avenues with modern architectural ensembles neighboring with ancient monuments and oriental bazaars with their unique flavor.

Historical and architectural monuments:

Shaykhantahur Complex is one of the main historical ensembles of Tashkent. It is built around the grave of local sheikh Khavendi Takhur who died in 1355.

Due to archeologists, the first Mausoleum was built in 2nd half of 15th century by Khodja Akhror and at the end of the century near the cemetery сhillyakhana (underground chamber for 40 days fasting) was constructed.  Besides, near the Mausoleum of Sheikh Khavendi Takhur small central mausoleum under conical dome devoted to Kaldirgachbiy and one of the biggest mausoleums in Tashkent devoted to Yunuskhan were built.

In 16th century this cemetery was the most popular “holy place” in Tashkent and most of Uzbek aristocracy was buried here. Between chillyakhona and mausoleum of sheikh Khavendi Takhur there was a special ziaratkhana (place where people prayed for deceased).

In 1924 reconstruction works were conducted and part of the buildings was dismantles.

Mausoleum is build from light-yellow bricks. In the windows of gurkhana and on southern façade of ziaratkhana ceramic majolica pandjara (decorative grilles) is inserted. The main façade is decorated in the shape of small portal.

Kaldirgachbiy Mausoleum is the oldest from preserved monuments on the territory of Tashkent. There is no direct historical information regarding the period of construction. The building was constructed in 15th century from burnt brinks. It has double pyramidal dome on rather short twelve-cut drum that is rare for Uzbekistan.

Mausoleum is square in the shape of separately standing dome construction. The only element of the reserved decoration of 15th century is plaster stalactites on the foundation of the dome. The hall has four niches, four small chambers in the corners, spiral brick staircase and khudjras. There is small square crypt under the main hall.

Kaldirgachbiy was ancestor of Khodja Akhrar and ruler of Mogolistan. Due to one of the national legends, he was mogolian king’s son from kipchaks, and due to another one – he was Kazakh biy from dulates and ruler named Tolebiy nicknamed as “Kaldirgach” (“Swallow”). Sometimes you can meet local visitors here from Uzbeks or Kazakhs for whom it is one of the most honored sacred places.

Barrakhkhan Madrasah is situated to the east of Chorsu market. It underwent several stages of construction and was completed in 1532.

First mausoleum “Nameless”, then mausoleum dedicated to Suyundjkhan was built here. The third stage was construction of portal and khudjras.

The madrasah has a courtyard which is surrounded by one-story khudjras. The main facade is split by a portal with a half-octagonal niche, where the glazed tiles have been preserved. Madrasah represents a strongly extended trapezoid form built around an oblong courtyard.

The complex is constructed from fragmentary brick. The decor of the facades has been used only on the main objects – the entrance peshtak of the madrasah, the portal and the dome of the mausoleum of Suyundjkhan. According to historical data, dome of the mausoleum was covered with blue tiles; the drum of the dome was decorated with star girikh with a pattern of 8-pointed stars, made of mosaic. That’s why this mausoleum was called “Kok gumbaz” (“Blue dome”). During the earthquake in 1868 the dome had been destroyed.

Nowadays the decor of the entrance peshtak of the madrasah is restored. The tympanum of the entrance arch is made from 6-sided majolica tiles, on which floral ornamentation has been painted.

Tillya Sheikh Mosque (“Golden Sheikh”) is previous main mosque of Uzbekistan. It is situated opposite Barrakkhan Madrasah. Tillya Sheikh Mosque was built by Kokand khan Mirza Akhmad Kushbegi in 1856-57.

In the mosque yard there are winter and summer halls for prayers, short minarets, warehouse rooms and a library. The mosque is decorated with carved mikhrab niche, minbar, window apertures.

Muyi Muborak Madrasah (“golden hair of Prophet Mohammad”) enters into the complex of Khazrati Imam. The construction was built in 16th century and as a consequence was reconstructed many times.

Well-known and popular holy Koran of Caliph Osman (Othman) is preserving in Muyi Muborak Madrasah. This Koran is an origin of holy book in the binding that was written on the deer’s pelt in the middle of 7th century.  There were 6 such Korans in the world. Nowadays only 4 of them are preserved and the most kept of them is in Uzbekistan. There are odd pages of the rest 4 Korans in London, Turkey and Cairo.

There are many versions of how this Koran Osman came to Uzbekistan, but the official one is the following one: when Amir Temur defeated Turkish ruler Bayazet in 1402, on the way back home he crossed Iranian city Basra and there Amir Temur took Koran Osman and brought to Samarkand where it was kept for long time in madrasah.

In 1869 the general Fon-Kaufman seized Samarkand and conveyed Koran Osman to imperatorial library in Saint-Petersburg. In 1905 there was taken 50 copies of this Koran which had been sold to fabulous price to the eastern countries. Nowadays two copies are being kept in Tashkent: one at Temurid’s Musem, and second at Muyi Muborak Madrasah.

In 1917 Koran Osman was replaced to Ufa which was the center of Islam in Russia; as a result Uzbekistan wrote official letter to the government of Russian with request to give it back. In 1924 Koran Osman was brought to Tashkent in the wagon of special train through Orenburg and it was handled to the History Museum of Uzbekistan. In 1989 with the initiative of President I.A. Karimov, Koran Osman was given for the permanent keeping to the Muslims Religion Department of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Kukeldash Madrasah is located on a high hill in the area of Chorsu square. The builder of the Madrasah was a vizier of the Tashkent khans, called Kukeldash (“the foster-brother of the khan”). The Madrasah has a traditional composition: an extensive court yard, built on khudjras, darskhana and the mosque in the corners. The main facade has a high portal, two story loggias, and angular turrets called guldasta.

At the end of the 18th century the madrasah was used as a caravanserai, in 1860 it served to the khans of Kokand as a fortress, and also as a place of execution.

Kukeldash Madrasah is one of the largest madrasahs of 16th century still preserved in Central Asia. The madrasah was constructed from baked brick. Only one facade is decorated. On the portal, the remains of carved decor, glazed bricks and majolica have been preserved.

Along with the Kukeldash Madrasah into the architectural ensemble on Chorsu Square Djuma (Jami) Mosque of Khodja Ahrar Vali is also included.

Djuma (Jami) Mosque of Khodja Ahrar Vali is the only example of Djuma (Friday) Mosque of domestic type in Tashkent which was popular in Central Asia during the epoch of the late Middle Ages.

The main building represents a cubic space blocked by a dome with four windows in a low drum. The east wall is divided by a large arch. The dome is spherical without ornamentation, and is based on spherical shields. The layout of the mosque is an extension of a large rectangular building at the end of its longitudinal axis running east to west.

The foundation of the mosque was done even at 8th century after Arabian conquest of the ancient Tashkent which was named “Chach” at that time. The city had been ruined. Stranger-Arabians even couldn’t pronounce the name of the city well and began to call it as “ash-Shash”.

In 819 your emir Yahya bin Asad which just took letters patent from eastern caliphate’s Arabian governor to rule over the all lands of present Tashkent region, stopped his horse on the hill which is now good place to observe three city squares – Chorsu, Khadra and Eski-Djuva. “Here we’ll build our capital city, – said Yahya to his suite, – it will be named Madina ash-Shash – northern outpost of Movarrounnahr!” There were Turkish guardsmen in his suite and after their commander’s words they said: “Yes, yes, right here we’ll build the city Shash!” In Turkish language “Madina ash-Shash” sounds as “Shashkent”. And on the highest point of that hill Yahya bin Asad ordered to make foundation of the first in Tashkent Djuma (Friday) Mosque.

In 1432, one of the famous public statesman of Timurid’s epoch Ubaydulla Khodja Ahrar visited Tashkent. While going back, Khodja Ahrar ordered to build big Djuma (Friday) Mosque and madrasah at ancient Tashkent settlements named Gulbazar. On the old foundation that remained from the first Tashkent mosque from Yahya bin Asad’s time, in the middle of 15th century a new typical cube with dome and open to the eastern side arched ceiling has been built.

In 2003 the mosque was rebuilt and modern methods of construction and decoration were used here. Nowadays not one but even three big domes crown this historical hill, and mosque looks like very smart and festive.

Sheikh Zaynutdin-bobo Mausoleum concerns to the mausoleums of khanaka type. The main entrance is split by peshtak. The hall covered by double sphere conic dome. On the entrance gates there is a master’s name carved: Mir-Sharab Abdu-Mumin ogli.

Sheikh Zaynutdin-bobo was a son of the founder of sufian order Sukhravardiya – Sheikh Ziya ad-Din Djakhim Sukhravardiy.    He was sent by his father to these areas for spreading ideas of sufian order. Sheikh Zaynutdin-bobo was buried at out-of-town settlement Arifon out of the gates Kukcha.

There is a chillyakhana (underground cell) built in 12th-13th centuries near the mausoleum.

Chimes – tower with clock is one of the sights of the city that is situated near to Square. The chimes were built in 1947 depicted to 2-years anniversary of the victory of World War II. One of four faces was brought from Austria, but out of order and master Mukhamedshin repaired it. The rest 3 faces had been done in Uzbekistan. Before the earthquake in 1966, this tower was one of the highest constructions in Tashkent.

In 2009 reconstruction of the monument has been conducted and a twin of the famous Chimes has appeared. To 2200-years anniversary of Tashkent one more Chimes were built which are situated near the Forum’s Palace.

Tashkent TV Tower was built in 1981 on the highest point of the city – at the height of 480 meters above sea level. Its height reaches up to 375 meters that makes it 9th highest construction in the world. This is the most powerful TV Towers in Central Asia.

The central body is situated at 100 meters height and is supported by three steel hollow piers that provide seismic stability of the construction in case of earthquakes at force up to 9 due to Richter scale. In its turn, these piers pass loading to three concrete floating boots at the weight of 2 tons each. The tower is equipped with high-speed lifts which within few minutes can raise visitors at the heights of 100 and 110 meters where pink and blue restaurants with revolving areas are situated. This part of the tower from outside is decorated with delicate sun protecting grilles. Central part of the tower is given for radio and television broadcasting, and the top is used by meteorologists.

Memorial complex “Shakhidlar hotirasi” (complex at the memory of victims of repressions) was established with the aim to immortalize the memory of the victims due to the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Uzbekistan.

During the constructional works in 1990, old mass burials of the people were found at the same area. Due to the evidence of the local people, mass burials of repressed people had been conducted here in 30th. As a result of investigations, two more burial vaults were found where in 1938th and 1939-1940thmass burials had been done.

Due to the existed information, in Uzbekistan during 1937-39th more than 400 thousand people were arrested, 61 799 of which were banished to the camps, and 6 920 were killed. In 1950-53rd, 56 112 people were banished to the camps, and 7 100 – were killed by shooting.

Tashkent Metro (Underground) is one of the main sights of the capital of Uzbekistan. During its construction the experience of 6 cities of former Soviet Union as well as Japan was used, so that Tashkent Metro is also called “main line of peoples’ friendship”.

Tashkent Metro is the only underground system in Central Asia. It was opened in Tashkent in 1977. Nowadays, there are three underground lines – Chilanzar, Uzbekistan and Yunusabad where totally 29 stations are situated.

Taking into account seismic peculiarities of our region, metro was built with a view of possible earthquakes at force up to 9 due to Richter scale. Along the whole length of the underground system after every 33 meters there is a seismic belt that protects lines and stations out of the destruction.

All the stations are done like underground palaces and decorated with unrepeatable ornaments, designs and color spectrum. During the decoration of many stations nurata, gazganian marble and our Uzbek granite was widely used.

Circus in Tashkent was built in 1977. It is situated on Khadra Square, not far from Kukeldash Madrasah. The construction is done in traditional eastern style, the dome due to its shape remembers a tyubeteyka (national skullcap of local people) or closed cotton box. Round shape of the building is decorated with delicate grille – pandjaras. In the inside interior multicolored stained-glass windows, ceramic mosaic, carving and paintings on ganch are widely used. The doors are made of nut tree and decorated with delicate laces in several levels.

“Istiqlol” Square (former Peoples’ Friendship Square) is one of the youngest squares of the city. It consists of the building of “Istiqlol” Palace, block of flats “Almazar” and “Karatash”.

“Istiqlol” Palace was built in 1983. The building has great appearance. Inside of the palace is originally decorated. On the first floor there is a foyer the walls of which are decorated with blue ceramic tiles with gilding. Side foyers are decorated with panels”Spring” and “Autumn”. In the vestibule, above the entrance door there are 3 panels made by usage of precious and half-precious stones in the technics of Florentine mosaic. Compositional center of the building is the auditorium up to 4 100 seats which is made as amphitheater with balconies. Slanting form of the side walls of the hall provide good visibility, acoustics and necessary transformations. Handmade velvet curtains are embroidered with golden threads by Bukharian seamstresses.

Concerts, festivals, events of state importance, conferences and meetings are usually conducted here in the palace. There are three conference halls specially equipped for such events.

For the decoration of the building local materials like shell rocks, granite, nurata and gazganian marble were used.